Tag Archives: Reality

SPINOZA: Ethics [Part I]

In his Ethics, Spinoza applies Euclid’s rigorous mathematical method of demonstration to philosophy. He states several definitions and axioms, and then derives conclusions from these starting points. Continue reading SPINOZA: Ethics [Part I]


BERKELEY: The Principles of Human Knowledge

The Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley once said “Esse est percipi,” which means “to be is to be perceived.” According to Berkeley, only minds and ideas exist; matter does not exist. He discusses this theory, which will later be referred to as subjective idealism, in his treatise titled, The Principles of Human Knowledge. In this video, we will explore Berkeley’s radical ontology, which, if accepted, resolves many philosophical paradoxes that have haunted mankind from time immemorial. Continue reading BERKELEY: The Principles of Human Knowledge