HOMER: The Odyssey [Book XXIII]

In Book XXIII of Homer’s Odyssey, the nurse Euryclea informs Penelope that Odysseus has returned and killed all the suitors. Penelope does not believe her, but rather claims that some god has punished the suitors for their wickedness. Nevertheless, she agrees to descend from her room to view the outcome of the battle. Continue reading HOMER: The Odyssey [Book XXIII]

HOMER: The Odyssey [Book XXII]

In Book XXII of Homer’s Odyssey, Odysseus shoots an arrow through Antinous’ throat, killing him. The other suitors are shocked and angrily threaten to kill Odysseus and feed him to the vultures. However, after Odysseus reveals his true identity, the suitor Eurymachus tries to dissuade Odysseus from killing the rest of them. He says that Antinous was the leader of the suitors and was responsible for the squandering of Odysseus’ wealth. Eurymachus also promises that every suitor will recompense Odysseus. “We will make everything good among ourselves, and pay you in full for all that we have eaten and drunk. Each one of us shall pay you a fine worth twenty oxen, and we will keep on giving you gold and bronze till your heart is softened.” Continue reading HOMER: The Odyssey [Book XXII]

ST. AUGUSTINE: The City of God [Book XV-XVIII]

Book XV – St. Augustine comments upon the Biblical narrative from Genesis to the Flood. He draws a comparison between the establishment of two cities – the Heavenly and the Earthly. Both cities were founded upon a fratricide. The Heavenly city was founded after Cain slew Abel. Rome was founded after Romulus slew Remus. Among other things, he attempts to defend the veracity of the account given in the Bible about the longevity of the antediluvians, he discusses the instances of incest in the Biblical narrative, and he explains the human-like – and therefore imperfect – emotions of God. Continue reading ST. AUGUSTINE: The City of God [Book XV-XVIII]