HOMER: The Iliad [Book XVIII]

In Book XVIII of Homer’s Iliad, a Greek soldier informs Achilles that Patroclus was killed in battle. Achilles is overcome by tremendous grief as he listens to the news. “A dark cloud of misery fell upon Achilles as he listened. He filled both hands with dust from off the ground, and poured it over his head, disfiguring his beautiful face, and letting the refuse settle over his shirt so fair and new. He flung himself down at full length, and tore his hair with his hands.” Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XVIII]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book XVII]

In Book XVII of Homer’s Iliad, the Greeks and Trojans fight over the corpse of Patroclus. The Trojans desire to carry the corpse back to Troy in order to ransom it for the corpse of Sarpedon, whom the Greeks recently killed. The Greeks, on the other hand, naturally desire to give Patroclus a proper burial. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XVII]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book XVI]

In Book XVI of Homer’s Iliad, Achilles and his friend Patroclus watch as the Trojans draw near to the Greek ships. Patroclus begs Achilles to allow him to don Achilles’ armor and lead the Myrmidons, which are Achilles’ troops, into battle against the Trojans in order to save the Greek ships. Achilles grants his friend’s request. He orders Patroclus to drive the Trojans from the ships, but forbids him from pursuing the Trojans to the city walls, lest Apollo, the Trojan-loving god, kill him. Achilles pours a libation to the gods for the success of Patroclus’ expedition. Then Patroclus dons Achilles’ armor and leads the Myrmidons into battle. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XVI]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book XV]

In Book XV of Homer’s Iliad, Jove awakens to find that Juno has deceived him so that Neptune can aid the Greeks. Jove becomes furious when he sees that Hector has been knocked unconscious and that the Greeks have pushed back the Trojans. He scolds Juno and commands her to summon Iris and Apollo to him. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XV]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book XIV]

In Book XIV of Homer’s Iliad, Jove oversees the war from the top of Mt. Ida. Recall that Jove forbade all other gods from interfering in the war. To get around Jove’s prohibition, Juno contrives a plan by which she will seduce Jove in order to distract him from the war just long enough for Neptune to aid the Greeks. “She deemed that it would be best for her to go to Ida and array herself in rich attire, in the hope that Jove might become enamoured of her, and wish to embrace her. While he was thus engaged a sweet and careless sleep might be made to steal over his eyes and senses.” Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XIV]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book XIII]

In Book XIII of Homer’s Iliad, the god Neptune begins to assist the Greeks. He assumes the shape of the Greek prophet Calchas and encourages the Greek soldiers to defend their ships from the approaching Trojans. The Greek troops, led by the two Ajaxes, form a phalanx and repel the initial Trojan attack. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XIII]

The unexamined life is not worth living.