HOMER: The Iliad [Book XIII]

In Book XIII of Homer’s Iliad, the god Neptune begins to assist the Greeks. He assumes the shape of the Greek prophet Calchas and encourages the Greek soldiers to defend their ships from the approaching Trojans. The Greek troops, led by the two Ajaxes, form a phalanx and repel the initial Trojan attack. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XIII]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book XI]

In Book XI of Homer’s Iliad, dawn arrives and the opposing armies prepare for battle. Agamemnon leads the first charge of Greeks against the Trojans. He kills numerous Trojans, sending the majority of the army fleeing back to Troy. When Jove sees Agamemnon routing the Trojans, he sends his messenger Iris to the Trojan Prince Hector. Iris instructs Hector to fight defensively until Agamemnon is wounded. Then Hector can lead a charge against the Greeks. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XI]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book X]

In Book X of Homer’s Iliad, Agamemnon summons the Greek generals after learning that Achilles did not accept his apology. The leaders decide to send scouts through the Trojan camp at night to learn the Trojan’s intentions and the composition of their army. Diomedes volunteers for this dangerous reconnaissance mission behind enemy lines and chooses Ulysses as his companion. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book X]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book IX]

In Book IX of Homer’s Iliad, Agamemnon summons the other Greek generals to discuss their most recent defeat at the hands of the Trojans. He argues that they should admit defeat and return to Greece. Diomedes, however, opposes Agamemnon’s motion and calls Agamemnon a coward for even thinking of abandoning the expedition. Nestor seconds Diomedes’ motion and urges Agamemnon to seek Achilles’ forgiveness so that he will return to the fighting. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book IX]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book VIII]

In Book VIII of Homer’s Iliad, Jove summons the gods and threatens them with the pains of Tartarus if they interfere with the Trojan War. He then travels to Mt. Ida, where he overlooks the war and balances the Fates of the Trojans and the Greeks in a golden scale. The Fate of the Greeks descends and Jove throws lightning at the Greeks, driving them to their ships behind their newly constructed fortifications. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book VIII]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book VII]

In Book VII of Homer’s Iliad, the Trojan Prince Hector returns to the battlefield. His return renews the fighting and the Trojans begin to rout the Greeks. Athena, a goddess who favors the Greeks, and Apollo, a god who favors the Trojans, agree to end the fighting today by inciting Hector to challenge a Greek to a one-on-one duel. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book VII]

The unexamined life is not worth living.

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