HOMER: The Iliad [Book XXI]

In Book XXI of Homer’s Iliad, the entire Trojan army flees from the wrath of Achilles. Some Trojans run towards the city, some run towards the river Scamander. Achilles chases those who fled to Scamander and slaughters all but tweleve Trojans, whom he intends to offer as sacrifices to the shade of Patroclus. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XXI]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book XX]

In Book XX of Homer’s Iliad, Jove assembles the gods. He is worried that Achilles, in his quest for revenge, will conquer Troy before the time appointed by Fate; and therefore, he rescinds his command to the gods to refrain from interfering in the war. After Jove lifts his ban, many of the gods eagerly descend to Troy in order to aid their favorite side. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XX]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book XIX]

In Book XIX of Homer’s Iliad, Thetis brings the newly forged armor to Achilles. She finds him weeping over Patroclus. He tells her that he is worried that Patroclus’ body will decompose while he is away fighting the Trojans and avenging Patroclus’ death. Thetis puts nectar and ambrosia into the nose of Patroclus and assures Achilles that Patroclus’ body will not decompose while he is away. Then she instructs him to assemble the Greek army and inform them that his wrath towards Agamemnon has abated. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XIX]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book XVIII]

In Book XVIII of Homer’s Iliad, a Greek soldier informs Achilles that Patroclus was killed in battle. Achilles is overcome by tremendous grief as he listens to the news. “A dark cloud of misery fell upon Achilles as he listened. He filled both hands with dust from off the ground, and poured it over his head, disfiguring his beautiful face, and letting the refuse settle over his shirt so fair and new. He flung himself down at full length, and tore his hair with his hands.” Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XVIII]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book XVII]

In Book XVII of Homer’s Iliad, the Greeks and Trojans fight over the corpse of Patroclus. The Trojans desire to carry the corpse back to Troy in order to ransom it for the corpse of Sarpedon, whom the Greeks recently killed. The Greeks, on the other hand, naturally desire to give Patroclus a proper burial. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XVII]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book XVI]

In Book XVI of Homer’s Iliad, Achilles and his friend Patroclus watch as the Trojans draw near to the Greek ships. Patroclus begs Achilles to allow him to don Achilles’ armor and lead the Myrmidons, which are Achilles’ troops, into battle against the Trojans in order to save the Greek ships. Achilles grants his friend’s request. He orders Patroclus to drive the Trojans from the ships, but forbids him from pursuing the Trojans to the city walls, lest Apollo, the Trojan-loving god, kill him. Achilles pours a libation to the gods for the success of Patroclus’ expedition. Then Patroclus dons Achilles’ armor and leads the Myrmidons into battle. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XVI]

HOMER: The Iliad [Book XV]

In Book XV of Homer’s Iliad, Jove awakens to find that Juno has deceived him so that Neptune can aid the Greeks. Jove becomes furious when he sees that Hector has been knocked unconscious and that the Greeks have pushed back the Trojans. He scolds Juno and commands her to summon Iris and Apollo to him. Continue reading HOMER: The Iliad [Book XV]

The unexamined life is not worth living.